I've spent the last two days on a Fast Track to Haskell course. It was a very interesting two days and I learnt a huge amount. The course was taught by Andres Löh from Well-Typed and hosted by the excellent people at Skillsmatter.
I went into the course having read the superb Learn You A Haskell book and having built a couple of experimental Haskell programs. From that starting point there was not a huge amount of content in the course that I was not aware of. However, it was great to have my learning verified and my understanding in many areas significantly improved. There were also a few things that changed my thinking on certain topics. All in all, a well spent two days.
The first day started with a whistle stop tour of the Haskell language and how to build things in it. There were plenty of excellent exercises to help cement learning and understanding. Then we looked in more detail at types and how to reason about software using types. The day concluded with looking at some more advanced type concepts including higher-order functions and type classes. The second day followed on with some more about types and then went on to look at how Haskell deals with I/O (which is very different to most other languages I have encountered). The rest of the day was then spent looking at common patterns that can be found in Haskell code and how these can be generalised into concepts such as Functors and Monads. Plenty more exercises followed.
I will now be going away and working on some private projects in Haskell, with the hope of attending the advanced course some time later this year. In the mean time, this blog post looks at some of the key things that I came away from the course with and how they relate back to the Scala and Java that I tend to do for my day job.
Focus on the Types, they are the API
When using an OO language, such as Java (or even Scala), we tend to think about classes, their interfaces and what behaviour they have, and then use this as a starting point to develop from. In Haskell you tend to think first about the types that are involved and then work forward from there. This is a very interesting approach as it makes it possible to think about a problem in a very general and quite abstract way without getting too bogged down in detail too quickly. The types become an API to your system (rather than the interfaces, methods and domain model in an OO solution).
My experience from the course was that this tends to lead to many more types and type aliases in Haskell than I would typically define in Java or Scala. However, this soon proves to be a huge advantage as it then makes it much easier to reason about what each function does/should do and makes its behaviour very clear via the type signature. I will certainly be looking at following this practice in any Haskell programs I write and also trying to introduce more types into my Scala code.
It's Pattern Matching and Recursion All The Way Down
In a language like Java there is nothing like pattern matching and recursion has to be used sparingly if you want to avoid blowing up the stack and writing poorly performing code. In Scala there is much more scope for both, although writing tail recursive functions is still very important to ensure that you get the best optimisations from the compiler. In Haskell, pattern matching and recursion are the bread and butter of the language. Almost every single function tends to be a pattern match on arguments and the language supports a naturally recursive style across the board. Given the lazy semantics of Haskell and the optimisation in the runtime for recursive algorithms this is the best approach for building programs in Haskell.
One area for improvement that I can see in my Scala code is to make more use of pattern matching, especially partial functions.
Thinking Curried Helps a Lot
In the Scala world we typically only curry functions when there are very obvious places to partially apply them. More often than not we just partially apply a function using the underscore for one of its parameters. This is needed to ensure compatibility with Java and the object-oriented model. However, in Haskell every function is completely curried. There are no multi-argument functions. Everything is a single argument function that returns either a result or another function.
Initially I found that this made sense in the model that I'm used to: partially applying functions. However, once it came to defining new types as actually being functions as well I found that this started to fry my mind slightly. The conclusion that I came to is that it's best to just think of everything from a curried mindset and throughout the course things gradually became clearer. This thinking is essential to understand things like the State monad (which I'm still not 100% confident about to be totally honest).
Parametric Polymorphism is Very Useful
One of my biggest take-aways from the course was how useful and important parametric polymorphism is. As an (overly) simple example, what does a function from Int -> Int do? It could return the same number, add something to it, multiply it, factor it, modulus it, ignore the input and return a constant - the possibilities are nearly endless. However, what does a function from a -> a do? Given no other constraints it can only do one thing - return itself (this is called the identity function - id in Haskell).
The ability to define functions in this polymorphic way makes it much easier to reason about what a function might do and also to restrict what a function actually can do. This second point greatly reduces the possibility of introducing unexpected defects or creating functions that have multiple interweaved concerns. As another example, consider the function: Ord a => [a] -> [a]. What does this do? Well, it could just return the same input list, but because it takes the Ord type class as a constraint it's quite likely to be some form of sorting or filtering by order function. As the writer of this function I'm restricted to working with lists and just using equality and ordering functionality so the possibility of doing anything unexpected is greatly reduced.
Parametric Polymorphism is possible in Scala, but not quite as powerful as there aren't type classes for may common concepts (e.g. equality, ordering, numbers, functor, applicative, monoid, monad etc.). Introducing Scalaz fixes this for quite a lot of cases, but that's not to the taste of many projects and mixed Scala/Java teams may find this a step too far. However, there's certainly more scope for using parametric polymorphism in everyday Scala code and this is something I'm going to work on ove the coming weeks (expect some more blog posts).
Don't Try to Over Generalise
Something that I've seen in every language is that once developers discover the power of generalising concepts they tend to go overboard with this. Remember the time when every piece of code was a combination of seven billion design patterns? The power of Haskell's type classes and parametric polymorphism makes it very easy to see patterns that may not actually hold. I can see that it would be very easy to waste a lot of time and effort trying to make a data type fit into various different type classes or trying to spot type class patterns in your code and pull them out into generic concepts.
As with any kind of design pattern, generalisation or similar, the best approach (in any language) is to just build what you need to solve a problem and then when it becomes apparent that it either fits an existing pattern or represents a general pattern then this change can be made as part of a refactoring process.
Try to Keep Pure and I/O Code Separate
Haskell's I/O model at first seems very different, unusual and restrictive. Once you get your head around it, it makes so much sense. Separating pure code from code that talks about doing an I/O action from code that actually does the I/O makes for software that is much more easy to reason about, test and reuse. Very powerful and something I'm looking forward to exploring more during my journey into Haskell.
In the Scala world, I'm not sure about the need to go to such lengths as using an I/O Monad or similar. However, I can really see the advantage of separating pure code from code that performs I/O. Having pure functions that transform data and then wiring them together with the I/O performing functions at a higher level seems a natural way to create software that is better structured and easier to test. I'll certainly be playing with some approaches in Scala to experiment with this concept further.
Functors, Applicatives, Monoids and Monads are Nothing Special
A final observation from the course is that many people learning and talking about functional programming get a bit obsessed with concepts like Functors, Applicatives, Monoids and Monads (especially Monads). What I learnt is that most of these are just simple patterns that can be represented by one or two basic functions and a few simple rules. Nothing more to them really. Certainly nothing to get all worked up about!
Yes, there's a great deal of skill involved in knowing when to use these patterns, when to make your own code follow a pattern and so on, but that's true of any programming language or design pattern. It's called experience.
If you are a Scala developer who is enjoying the functional programming aspects of the language I would certainly recommend taking a look at Haskell. I found that it clarified lots of things that I thought I understood from Scala but still had some doubts about. Haskell is, in my opinion, a more elegant language than Scala and once you start using it you realise just how many hoops the Scala team had to jump through to maintain compatibility with the JVM, Java code and object-oriented features. Over the two days I learnt a lot about Haskell, a lot about functional programming and a lot about how to get even more value from Scala.